Greetings to all, today we are going to upload the Weather, Climate, and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Class 7 Notes PDF for the assistance of all the students as well as teachers. Weather influences our lives in different ways. During summer, we switch on fans to keep ourselves cool, we use light-colored clothes to reflect the heat. During winter, we use dark color clothes and wrap ourselves in warm clothes to protect ourselves from the cold environment. Similarly, during the rainy season, we use an umbrella or raincoat as it may rain anytime. The weather of a place varies day after day and week after week. It is a difficult spectacle that may change over very short periods (like an hour to an hour). CBSE Class 7 Science Notes Chapter 7 Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Pdf download is part of Class 7 Science Notes for Quick Revision. we have given NCERT Class 7 Science Notes Chapter 7 Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate.
Detailed Table of the Chapter 7 Notes – Weather, Climate, and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Notes Class 7 PDF
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Weather, Climate, and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Class 7 Notes PDF
It may be defined as the day-to-day condition of the atmosphere at a place concerning the temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, etc.
Elements of Weather
The temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and other factors are called the elements of the weather which are described below:
The weather is mainly affected by the sun producing heat and raising the temperature. The sun provides light as well as heat on the earth. It is necessary for the production of energy. The < heat from the sun is absorbed by the earth’s surface, oceans, and atmosphere which plays an important role in determining the weather of any place.
Therefore, it is clear that change in weather is caused due to the sun because the changes occurring in the sun’s heat will change the atmosphere more frequently. The time of sunrise and sunset also changes throughout the year.
The amount of water droplets that fall back on the earth after the condensation of water vapors is called rainfall. When the temperature is too low, these droplets in the cloud get frozen into crystals of ice and come on the earth as snowfall. During winters, the temperature falls after sunset causing condensation of water vapors near the ground. These droplets hang in the air to form fog.
Note: Rainfall is generally measured in millimeters. The instrument that is used to measure the rainfall is called a rain gauge. It is a measuring cylinder with a funnel kept on its top which collects the rainwater. The rainwater collected in the measuring cylinder gives the measure of rainfall.
It is defined as ‘the amount of water vapor in the air which causes dampness of air’. Air can hold certain. amount of water vapor. The capacity of air to hold water increases with rising temperature and falls if heavy rainfall occurs. The humidity is measured by an instrument called a hygrometer which consists of two thermometers.
The bulb of one thermometer is wet and the other is dry.
- Wind Speed
It is caused due to the difference in air pressure. During summer, the wind blows from the Indian ocean and the Bay of Bengal and causes rain in India while during winter, it blows from the mountain of north India towards the northern plain and causes cold weather (winter season).
The prediction of weather is done by scientists, called meteorologists, who study the changes in the weather. The weather is predicted by studying the patterns of weather and the factors affecting them. The science that deals with the study of weather are called meteorology. In India, the weather reports are prepared by the Meteorological Department of Government. This department collects the data of temperature, wind, etc., and predicts whether on television radio, or newspaper. The weather report is recorded every day in the form of a graph and published in a table form showing readings of different elements of weather.
The difference in Time of Sunrise and Sunset
There is a difference in the time of sunrise during summer and winter. In summer the sun rises earlier in the morning and the sun sets late in the evening during June, while the sun rises late and sets early in December.
Therefore, days are longer and night shorter in summers while the day is shorter and night is longer during winter.
‘The average weather pattern taken over a long time is called the climate of that place.’ Different places in the world have different types of climates. The annual record of long-term average temperature and rainfall at a particular place is called a climate chart. It gives an idea about the climate at a particular place during a specific period of the year. The major factor which determines the climate of a place is called latitude (imaginary lines on earth).
Factors that Determine the Climate
The several factors that determine the climate at a place are
- Distance from the sea Climate of a place varies according to the closeness of the sea. The places that are near the sea, are moderate (not too hot nor too cold), e.g. Mumbai, Chennai. While the places that are away from the sea have extreme climates, having very hot summer or too cold winter, e.g. Delhi.
- Altitude or height above sea level Climate also varies according to the altitude. The higher altitudes are cooler, e.g. Himalaya.
- Humidity It also determines the climate of a place. Kolkata and Kerala have high humidity, while. Rajasthan and Haryana have low humidity.
Climates in India
The climate of India varies in different regions. These can be described as below:
- The northern region of the Himalayas has a cold and moderately wet climate (e.g. Kashmir).
- Plains have a moderately hot and wet climate (e.g. Uttar Pradesh).
- South has a very hot and wet climate (e.g. Kerala).
- The western region has a hot and dry climate (e.g. Rajasthan).
- North-Eastern India has a wet climate (e.g. Assam) and receives rain for a major part of the year.
Climate and Adaptation
The ability of an organism to develop certain features which improve the chances of its survival in the environment in which they live is known as adaptation. Animals are adapted to survive in the conditions in which they live. In other words, an adaptation is a trait of an organism that has been favored by natural selection.
Adaptations are of three types:
(i) Structural adaptations Adaptation of special body parts of an organism that helps it to survive in its natural habitat, e.g. skin color, shape, body covering.
(ii) Behavioural adaptations Adaptation of special ways in a particular organism that helps it to survive in its
natural habitat. It usually occurs in response to some external stimuli, e.g. frogs and bear undergoes hibernation or winter sleep during the hard winter season.
(iii) Physiological adaptations Adaptation of body systems presents in an organism that allows it to perform the certain biochemical reaction, e.g. warm-blooded animals can keep the constant body temperature.
Animals that live in a very cold or hot climate must possess special features to protect themselves against extreme cold or heat. The features and habits that help an animal adapt to their surrounding are a result of the process of evolution. According to their habitat animals adapt themselves. These animals may be grouped as polar regions and tropical rainforest animals.
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