Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants Notes

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Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants Notes PDF- Short Notes


  1. Reproduction is the production of young ones like parents.
  2. Essential Process related to continuity of species.
  3. To maintain continuity of life, organisms produce offspring showing similar characteristics.
  4. TWo types – Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction.

Asexual reproduction

  1. Fusion of two compatible gametes or sex cells is not involved.
    2. Production of genetically identical progeny, i. e. Clones.
    3. Progeny from a single organism.
    4. Inheritance of genes of a parent by progeny.
    5. Modes of Asexual Reproduction

(1) Fragmentation

  • Multicellular organism
  • Small piece
  • Accidental breaking E.g. Algae Spirogyra.

(2) Budding

  • Unicellular organism
  • One or more outgrowths, i.e. buds
  • E.g. Yeast

(3) Spore formation

  • Different types
  • Flagellated motile zoospores
  • Zoosporangia
  • Biftagellate zoospores. E.g. Chlamydomonas

(4) Fission
Binary Fission E.g. Amoeba, Paramoecium
(5) Conidia formation
E.g. Fungus Penicillium
(6) Gemmule formation
E.g. Sponges
(1) Cutting
Small piece of plant part selected.
Must possess one or more bud.

  • Stem cutting
    e.g. Rose, Bougainvillea
  • Leaf cutting
    e.g. Sansev feria
  • Root cutting
    e.g. Blackberry

(2) Grafting

  • Joining of two plant parts stock and scion
  • Rooted plant — Stock
  • Joined plant – Scion
  • Grow together as one plant
    • Stem grafting e.g. Apple
    • Bud grafting, budding e.g. Rose

(3) Tissue Culture

  • A small amount of plant tissue is carefully and aseptically grown to get plantlets.
  • Micropropagation — Modern method to get plants from tissue culture. e.g. Orchids

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