Adoration to all, today we are going to upload the Pastoralists in The Modern World Class 9 Notes PDF to assist you all. Pastoralists in the Modern World branch discusses nomadic pastoralists. Nomads are people who do not live in one area but move from one place to another to gain their living. In this branch, you also read how pastoralism has been influential in societies like India and Africa, the way colonialism impacted their lives, and how they have coped with the pressures of modern society.
The chapter will firstly focus on India and then Africa. These CBSE Class 9 History notes of Chapter 5 help students to save their precious time while preparing for their exams. With the help of these notes, learners can have a thorough revision of the entire chapter quickly just before the exam. These notes are prepared according to the syllabus of CBSE Class 9 History.
Detailed Table of Chapter 5 Notes – Pastoralists in The Modern World Class 9 Notes PDF
|6.||Chapter Name||Pastoralists in The Modern World|
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Pastoralists in The Modern World Class 9 Notes PDF
In the Mountains
In the nineteenth century, Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir migrated to the mountains in search of pastures for their animals. During the winter, they moved to the low hills of the Siwalik range. By the end of April, they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds. This journey is known as a kafila. Again, they started their march by the end of September, this time back to their winter base. The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh also had a similar cycle of seasonal movement.
On the Plateaus, Plains, and Deserts
Pastoralists were also found in the plateaus, plains and deserts of India. In Maharashtra, Dhangars were an important pastoral community who were mostly, shepherds, blanket weavers, and buffalo herders. During the monsoon, they used to stay in the central plateau of Maharashtra. By October the Dhangars harvest their bajra and move to the west. After they reached Konkan, they were welcomed by Konkani peasants. After the kharif harvest was cut, the fields had to be fertilised and made ready for the rabi harvest.
Colonial Rule and Pastoral Life
Pastoralists’ life changed completely, under colonial rule. Their movements were regulated, grazing grounds shrank, and the revenue they had to pay increased. Even their agricultural stock declined and their trades and crafts were adversely affected. It happened due to the following reasons:
- Land revenue was one of the main sources for finance of the colonial state. So, the colonial government wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms through which they could expand cultivation and increase its revenue collection.
- By the mid-nineteenth century, various Forest Acts were being enacted in different provinces. According to these Acts, forests that produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’ and other forests were classified as ‘Protected’.
How Did these Changes Affect the Lives of Pastoralists?
Due to these measures, there was a shortage of pastures. When grazing lands were taken over and turned into cultivated fields, the available area of pastureland declined. As pasturelands disappeared under the plough, the existing animal stock had to feed on whatever grazing land remained. When restrictions were imposed on pastoral movements, grazing lands came to be continuously used and the quality of pastures declined. This, in turn, created a further shortage of forage for animals and the deterioration of animal stock.
How Did the Pastoralists Cope with these Changes?
Pastoralists reacted to these changes in various ways. They reduced the number of cattle and some discovered new pastures. After 1947, the new political boundaries between India and Pakistan stopped the camel and sheep herding Raikas, to graze their camels on the banks of the Indus. Over the years, some richer pastoralists bought land and settled down, giving up their nomadic life. Some became peasants by cultivating land, others indulged in trading. On the other hand, poor pastoralists, borrowed money from moneylenders to survive.
Pastoralism in Africa
In Africa, even today, over 22 million Africans depend on some form of pastoral activity for their livelihood. Like pastoralists in India, the lives of African pastoralists have changed dramatically over the colonial and post-colonial periods.
The Borders are Closed
In the nineteenth century, African pastoralists could move over vast areas in search of pastures. But, from the late nineteenth century, the colonial government began imposing various restrictions on their mobility. White settlers and European colonists saw pastoralists as dangerous and savage. The new territorial boundaries and restrictions imposed on them suddenly changed the lives of pastoralists, which adversely affected both their pastoral and trading activities.
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