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Detailed Table of Chapter 13 Notes – Nuclei Class 10 Notes PDF
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Nuclei Class 10 Notes PDF – Short Notes
- Atomic Number: The number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number. It is denoted by Z.
- Mass number: The total number of protons and neutrons present in a nucleus is called the mass number of the element. It is denoted by A.
No. of Protons, Electrons, Nucleons, and Neutrons in an Atom:
- Number of protons in an atom = Z
- Number of electrons in an atom = Z
- Number of nucleons in an atom = A
- A number of neutrons in an atom = N = A – Z.
- Nuclear Mass: The total mass of the protons and neutrons present in a nucleus is called the nuclear mass.
- Nuclide: A nuclide is a specific nucleus of an atom characterized by its atomic number Z and mass number A. It is represented as,
Where X = chemical symbol of the element, Z = atomic number, and A = mass number
- The atoms of an element that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers are called isotopes.
- Isotopes have similar chemical properties but different physical properties.
- Isobars: The atoms having the same mass number but different atomic numbers are called isobars.
- Isotones: The nuclides having the same number of neutrons are called isotones.
- Isomers: These are nuclei with the same atomic number and same mass number but in different energy states.
- Electron Volt: It is defined as the energy acquired by an electron when it is accelerated through a potential difference of 1 volt and is denoted by eV.
Atomic Mass Unit:
- It is of the actual mass of a carbon atom of isotope. It is denoted by amu or just by u.
- 1 amu =kg
- The energy equivalence of 1 amu is 1 amu = 931 MeV
- Discovery of Neutrons:
- Neutrons were discovered by Chadwick in 1932.
- When beryllium nuclei are bombarded by alpha-particles, highly penetrating radiations are emitted, which consists of neutral particles, each having mass nearly that of a proton. These particles were called neutrons.
- A free neutron decays spontaneously, with a half-life of about 900 s, into a proton, electron, and antineutrino.
- Size of the Nucleus:
- It is found that a nucleus of mass number A has a radius.
- This implies that the volume of the nucleus, which is proportional to R3is proportional to A.
- The density of the Nucleus: The density of the nucleus is constant; independent of A, for all nuclei, and the density of nuclear matter is approximate
which is very large as compared to ordinary matter, say water which is 103 kg m-3.
- Mass-Energy equivalence: Einstein proved that it is necessary to treat mass as another form of energy. He gave the mass-energy equivalence relation as E = mc2 Where m is the mass and c is the velocity of light in a vacuum.
- Mass Defect: The difference between the rest mass of a nucleus and the sum of the rest masses of its constituent nucleons is called its mass defect. It is given by-
- It may be defined as the energy required to break a nucleus into its constituent protons and neutrons and to separate them to such a large distance that they may not interact with each other.
- It may also be defined as the surplus energy that the nucleus gives up by virtue of their attractions which they become bound together to form a nucleus.
- The binding energy of a nucleus is-
- Binding Energy per Nucleon: It is the average energy required to extract one nucleon from the nucleus.
It is obtained by dividing the binding energy of a nucleus by its mass number.
- These are the strong attractive forces that hold protons and neutrons together in a tiny nucleus.
- These are short-range forces that operate over a very short distance of about 2 – 3 fm of separation between any two nucleons.
The nuclear force does not depend on the charge of the nucleon.
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