Greetings to all, Today we are going to upload the Lifelines of national Economy Notes PDF to assist you all. The speed of development of a country relies upon the production of goods and services as well as their motion over area. Today, the world has been revived into a large town with the assistance of efficient and fast-moving transport. Today, India is generously linked with the rest of the world.
In CBSE Notes Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 – Lifelines of National Economy, you will see how trendy means of transport and communication serve as lifelines of our nation and its modern economy.
Detailed Table of Chapter 12 Notes – Lifelines of national Economy Class 10 Notes PDF
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Lifelines of national Economy Class 10 Notes PDF
The movement of goods and services can be over three important domains of our earth i.e. land, water, and air. Based on these, transport can also be classified into the land, water, and air transport. Let’s discuss them in detail:
India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 54.7 lakh km. The growing importance of road transport over rail transport is mentioned below:
- The construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
- Roads can cover more geographically harder locations that cannot be done by the railways.
- Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and can be easily built-in traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
- Road transport is economical.
- It also provides door-to-door service
In India, roads are classified into the following six classes according to their capacity.
Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways
Golden Quadrilateral is a network of Highways connecting India’s four top metropolitan cities, namely Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
The National highways are a network of trunk roads that are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). The historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar.
Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD).
These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.
Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category. These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
Border Roads Organisation constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country. This organization was established in 1960 for the development of roads of strategic importance in the northern and north-eastern border areas.
Roads can also be classified on the basis of the type of material used for their construction such as:
- Metalled roads may be made of cement, concrete, or even bitumen of coal. These are all-weather roads.
- Unmetalled roads go out of use in the rainy season.
Railways are the principal mode of transportation for carrying huge loads and bulky goods for long and short distances in India. Railways have become more important in India’s economy. However, rail transport suffers from certain problems as well, which are mentioned below:
- Construction of bridges is required across rivers’ wide beds for laying down the railway lines.
- In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracks are laid through low hills, gaps, or tunnels.
- The Himalayan mountainous regions are also unfavorable for the construction of railway lines due to the highest elevation points on the surface, sparse population, and lack of economic opportunities.
- It is difficult to lay railway lines on sandy plains.
A pipeline network uses pipes, usually underground, to transport and distribute fluids. These are used to transport water, crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, fertilizer factories, and big thermal power plants. Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into a slurry.
There are 3 important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
- From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
- From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab
- From Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh
Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. It is a fuel-efficient and environment-friendly mode of transport.
The National Waterways in India are:
- N.W. No.1 – The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km).
- N.W. No.2 – The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km).
- N.W. No.3 – The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapurma-Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals-205 km).
- N.W. No.4 – Specified stretches of Godavari and Krishna rivers along with Kakinada Puducherry stretch of canals (1078 km).
- N.W. No.5 – Specified stretches of river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers, and East Coast Canal (588 km).
Inland waterways in India are Mandavi, Zuari, Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak, and backwaters of Kerala through which transportation takes place.
Major Sea Ports
India’s trade with foreign countries is carried from the ports. There are 2 major and 200 notified non-majors (minor/intermediate) ports in India.
Here is the list of major ports in India:
- Kandla in Kachchh was the first port to be developed after independence. It is also known as the Deendayal Port.
- Mumbai is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbor.
- Marmagao port (Goa) is the premier iron ore exporting port of India.
- Mangalore port, located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore.
- Kochchi is the extreme south-western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon.
- Tuticorin port is situated in the extreme southeast.
- Chennai is one of the oldest artificial ports in India.
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