How Do Organisms Reproduce Class 10 Notes

Greetings to all, Today we are going to upload the How do Organism Reproduce Class 10 Notes PDF to assist students, as well as tutors. Chapter 10 in Science deals with the topic of ‘How do organisms reproduce. This chapter mainly discusses the reproductive system in living organisms and the types of reproductive systems, in certain. It shows the additional methods of reproductive systems in plants and animals and determines between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.
Class 10 Science Chapter 8 notes also elaborate on the male reproductive system and the female reproductive system. The chapter applies down the various intricacies associated with it and other related aspects. Here we provide free CBSE Solutions (NCERT) and other study materials for students.

1. Board CBSE
2. Textbook NCERT
3. Class Class 10
4. Subject  Notes
5. Chapter  Biology Chapter 8
6. Chapter Name How do Organisms Reproduce 
7. Category CBSE Revision Notes

How do Organisms Reproduce Class 10 Notes PDF

Reproduction is the process by which all organisms multiply in number and increase their population.
Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction is a method of reproduction that involves only one organism. A single organism reproduces two or multiple organisms on its own. This is seen in all unicellular organisms, some multicellular organisms, and a few plants.
Sexual reproduction
The mode of reproduction involves two individuals; one male and one female. They produce sex cells or gametes which fuse to form a new organism.
Asexual Reproduction

  • Fission is an asexual reproduction that is common in most unicellular organisms.
  • When the fission results in two daughter cells, it is binary fission (e.g. paramecium).
  • When fission results in many daughter cells, it is called multiple fission (e.g. Plasmodium).
  • Planes of fission may be different for different organisms.


  • Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a small cyst-like structure is formed on the parent’s body, which gives rise to a new individual.
  • Bud may remain attached to the parent (yeast) or may separate and become a new individual (hydra).

Regeneration and fragmentation

  • Regeneration is the process of growing back the lost organ or body part by the organism (e.g. lizard).
  • E.g. Planaria, Hydra
  • Fragmentation and Regeneration in Hydra

Sexual Reproduction
Types of Cell division
Two types of cell division are seen in eukaryotic organisms:

  • Takes place in somatic cells
  • Maintains the chromosome number
  • Produces two, diploid daughter cells

The Reproductive System
Male reproductive system

  • The main reproductive organ in males is a pair of testes.
  • They produce the male sex cells called sperms and also produce the male sex hormone testosterone.

Male main reproductive organs

  • The main reproductive organ in males is a pair of testes.
  • They are present in scrotal sacs outside the body and contain seminiferous tubules as the structural and functional unit.

Male accessory reproductive organs

  • Several accessory reproductive organs aid in the reproductive process.
  • The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles are glands of the reproductive system which make semen and nourish the sperms.
  • Penis, having the urethra passing through it, is called a copulatory organ.

Male Ducts

  • In males, the vas deferens and the urethra are the main ducts.
  • A single vas deferens carries sperms from respective testis up to the urethra.
  • The urethra acts as a common passage for semen and urine.

Female reproductive system
The human female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries, a pair of fallopian tubes/oviducts, and the accessory organs such as the uterus and the vagina.
Female main reproductive organ

  • The main reproductive organ in a female is a pair of ovaries.
  • They produce the female sex cells called eggs or ova and also produce female sex hormones called estrogen and progesterone.

Female accessory reproductive organ

  • The uterus and vagina are the accessory reproductive organs in human females.
  • The uterus is the site of fetal development and the vagina receives sperms from the male. 

Menstrual Cycle

  • Menstruation is the cyclic event of the release of the ovum from the ovary and its removal from the body when fertilization does not happen.
  • During menstruation, the blood-rich endometrium of the uterus also breaks down while the ovum is being removed from the body.
  • In humans, the cycle repeats every 28 days.

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