Hello friends, today we are going to upload the Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes PDF to assist you all. Chapter 4 – Forest Society and Colonialism will take you into the woodland(forest). It speaks about the growth of industries and urban centers, ships and railways, new demand on the forests for timber and other forest products. Students will also get to understand topics such as new rules of forest use, new ways of organizing the forest, colonial control, how forest regions were mapped, trees were classified, and plantations were materialized. The chapter will give you an opinion of the history of such developments in India and Indonesia.
CBSE Class 9 notes of History will assist the students to study the subject in a very careful and concise way. These CBSE Class 9 History notes are all conditioned by subject experts and have kept the study material very simple, including the language and the format.
Detailed Table of Chapter 4 Notes – Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes PDF
|5.||Chapter||History Chapter 4|
|6.||Chapter Name||Forest Society and Colonialism|
|7.||Category||CBSE Revision Notes|
Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 Notes PDF – Short notes
Deforestation means the disappearance of forests and is not a recent problem. It began many centuries ago, but under colonial rule, it became more systematic and extensive.
Land to be Improved
Over the centuries, as the population grew and the demand for food went up, peasants started clearing forests and breaking new land. British encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton. In the 19th century, the demand for these crops increased. The colonial state thought that forests were unproductive in the early 19th century. So between 1880 and 1920, cultivated areas and the expansion of cultivation showed a sign of progress.
Sleepers on the Tracks
In England, by the early nineteenth century, oak forests were disappearing. Search parties were sent to India to explore the forest resources. Railways spread from the 1850s. Railways were essential for colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops. From the 1860s, the railway network expanded rapidly. Trees started falling as the railway tracks spread through India.
Large areas of natural forests cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe’s growing need for these commodities. The forests were taken over by the colonial government and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates to plant tea or coffee.
The Rise of Commercial Forestry
British were worried that reckless use of trees by traders and use of forests by local people would destroy forests. Dietrich Brandis, a German expert, became the first Inspector General of Forests in India. He realised that a proper system had to be introduced to manage the forests and people need to be trained in the science of conservation. But it needed legal sanction.
How were the Lives of People Affected?
Villagers wanted forests with species of different types to satisfy their needs of fuel, fodder and leaves. On the other hand, the forest department wanted trees like teak and sal suitable for building ships or railways. Roots, leaves, fruits and tubers were used for many things. In the forest almost everything was available such as herbs, yokes, ploughs, bamboo, etc.
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